Acetylene's special property of giving bright light and intense heat when burnt with oxygen has made acetylene widely applicable in various kinds of industry, especially in metal welding and cutting, analysis in medical industry and instrument industry.
Chemical use of acetylene is currently growing at the modest rate of 1.5 percent annually. It is becoming increasingly prominent as a raw material for a whole series of organic compounds, among them acetaldehyde, acetic gas, and acetic anhydride. This has resulted in high demand for acetylene thus, leading to high demand of Acetylene Gas Plants.
Acetylene (C2H2), is known as one of the simplest and most significant chemical in the acetylene series. A compound of carbon and hydrogen, acetylene is a colorless, highly flammable gas that dissociates at normal to low pressures and needs to be stored in high-pressure tanks containing some porus material and acetone. It has active chemical property; it is easy to polymerize, synthesize and cause chemical reactions.
Acetylene Gas Plant Process
Acetylene is manufactured by the reaction of water with calcium carbide and can also be produced by thermal cracking of hydrocarbons, or by partial combustion of methane and oxygen.
The plant consists of the following:
Acetylene Generator: It consists of an agitator and its drive unit with several other things, like, flash back arrestor, safety valves drain system & the automatic control system.
Condenser for cooling: To cool the acetylene gas produced by the generator, which is hot and have moisture and other gaseous impurities.
A Low Pressure Dryer:This dryer is charged with anhydrous carbide which absorbs the moisture in the gas.
High Pressure Dryer with three columns: The first one is filled with packing to avoid any void and ensure better mixing and the second and third are filled with anhydrous calcium chloride.
Purifier: Which is a huge tanker, divided into two parts. Each part is charged with purifying mass which absorbs waste gases.
Ammonia Scrubber: An equipment for all the water-soluble impurities like ammonia.
Acetylene Compressor: which is a 3 phase machine, immersed in water filled tank. It avoids the pressurized gas to come in contact with air and make sure that all the components are continuously cooled.
An acetone Pump: Which is foe the purpose of charging acetone in cylinders.
Filling Manifold: Have two headers fitted with non-return valves, one flash back arrestors, pressure gauge and manual isolation valves.
Controllers: An acetylene gas plants comes with numerous automatic controls, like, Temperature cum temperature alarm, pressure controls, level alarm, water inlet control.
Liquid Acetylene Plant
Liquid Acetylene or dissolved acetylene is manufactured by 'Dissolved Acetylene Gas Plants' by using compressor to charge the acetylene in gas state into steel cylinder filled with porous material and solvent (acetone), to make acetylene gas dissolved in acetone solvent. The next step follows at the time of actual application, when acetylene gas is released from acetone solvent, producing the dissolved acetylene.